by Frank Dunnigan
Numerous San Francisco houses of worship have been lost to fire throughout the 20th century. In addition, declining membership numbers have also brought about many closures and conversions to new uses. Repurposed buildings are now being reconfigured in a wide variety of ways, though there have also been some complete tear-downs and replacement structures built over the years.
In addition to those listed below, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese closed many churches in the early 1990s, including Sacred Heart Church at Fell & Fillmore (now a roller skating rink within the old building), St. Brigid’s at Van Ness & Broadway (now a branch of Academy of Art College), St. Joseph’s at 10th & Howard Streets (now a private, non-profit, arts-society club) St. Edward’s on California Street near Laurel Village (demolished and replaced with condominiums before the turn of the millennium), Holy Cross at Eddy between Scott & Divisadero (partial condo conversion and partial repurposing as Macang Buddhist Monastery). Read more about this particular site in a 2017 article by Woody LaBounty.
The following are few of the notable houses of worship across the City that have either disappeared or been transformed into new uses.
Temple Beth Israel and Masonic Temple after earthquake, 1906. (wnp27.2495; J.B. Moller / Courtesy of a Private Collector)
BETH-ISRAEL SYNAGOGUE and PIKE MEMORIAL MASONIC TEMPLE
These two structures, long-time neighbors on Geary in the Western Addition, are completely separate and distinct, but share an evolving history of varying uses through most of the 20th century. Beth-Israel Synagogue (left-side of this image, with an address of 1839 Geary) was the third local home to an early Jewish congregation, and construction was nearly complete in April of 1906. Badly damaged by the earthquake, it was soon repaired and had a large membership for well over 50 years. The Albert Pike Memorial Temple (right, located at 1859 Geary) was built by a Masonic lodge in 1905 and also suffered extensive damage in 1906. It was also rebuilt and had a solid membership until the 1960s.
Beth-Israel merged with Temple Judea on Brotherhood Way and relocated to that facility in 1969. The old synagogue remained vacant but in 1986, it was converted into a spectacular art gallery known as Duquette Pavilion of St. Francis. Sadly, it was destroyed in an accidental electrical fire early in 1989.
The Pike Memorial Masonic Temple was vacant during much of the 1960s, and by the 1970s, it was leased to Jim Jones and the People’s Temple which used the site for several years before the tragedy in Jonestown, Guyana in November 1978. The site remained largely disused after that, and in October of 1989 it was irreparably damaged by the Loma Prieta earthquake and was soon torn down.
These two sites are currently home to a branch of the US Postal Service.
Second Church of Christ, Scientist on Dolores near 20th Street, circa 1960. (wnp33.04212; Courtesy of a Private Collector)
SECOND CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST
The Second Church of Christ Scientist facing Dolores Park was built in 1915. Its once-large congregation worshipped under a massive dome, but over time, the congregation dwindled and the structure suffered from significant deferred maintenance. The membership relocated, and the building was condemned in 2006 and appeared to be headed for the wrecking ball until an investor purchased it and completed a thorough rehab, converting it into four multi-story townhomes averaging 5,000 square feet each. Read more about it in this article.
Third Church of Christ, Scientist on Haight, 1990s. (wnp07.00276; Richmond Review Newspaper Collection / Courtesy of Paul Kozakiewicz, Richmond Review)
THIRD CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST
The church, built in 1915 at 1250 Haight Street, opposite Buena Vista Park, was home to one of several Christian Science congregations in San Francisco in the early 20th century. After the membership dispersed through attrition, the building was acquired by a non-profit group and its historic façade was preserved, with 40 affordable housing rental units for seniors, built within the building’s shell, and opening in 2010.
Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist (now Internet Archive) at Clement and Funston, circa 1930. (wnp70.0826; Marilyn Blaisdell Collection / Courtesy of Molly Blaisdell)
FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST
Located at 300 Funston Avenue, corner of Clement Street, and built in 1923, the Classical Revival style building was designed by noted San Francisco architect Carl Werner. Due to the dwindling size of its congregation and the increased cost of maintaining such a large building, it was sold in 2009 to the Internet Archive.
Stewart Memorial Presbyterian Church on Guerrero, circa 1973. (wnp25.1758; Meg Oldman photo – Courtesy of a Private Collector)
METROPOLITAN COMMUNITY CHURCH
Metropolitan Community Church (built as Stewart Memorial Presbyterian Church at 1074 Guerrero in 1902), is shown here after an arson fire on July 27, 1973. The church was home to a largely gay congregation at the time and this was the fourth arson fire nationwide to strike Metropolitan Community Churches. The location sat vacant until housing was built in the 2000s.
Simpson Memorial Church at Hayes and Buchanan, 1886. (wnp37.03504; O.V. Lange, photographer – Marilyn Blaisdell Collection / Courtesy of a Private Collector)
SIMPSON MEMORIAL METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH
Located at Hayes & Buchanan and built in 1885, it survived the 1906 disaster, but was abandoned by its congregation prior to the 1940s. The large church building was then used as the Hayes Valley Recreation Center until the 1960s when it was demolished for a corner playground. The property now features a small, recently-added low-rise building for indoor recreation at the rear of the property.
R-Line Trolley Bus on South Van Ness with St. Anthony of Padua Church in background, 1943. (wnp5.50197; Courtesy of Jack Tillmany)
ST. ANTHONY OF PADUA CHURCH
Built in 1894 in a predominantly German section of the Mission District, St. Anthony’s was lost to fire on June 30, 1975. A new, smaller church of a contemporary design replaced it a few years later, with the original masonry archway preserved at the entrance to the new building’s plaza area. See the church’s website for old and new photos of interior and exterior, plus news reports of the fire.
St. Charles Borromeo School at 18th and Shotwell, April 1974. (wnp25.1727; Judith Lynch / Courtesy of a Private Collector)
ST. CHARLES CHURCH
Built in 1888 as the first St. Charles Church on 18th Street in the Mission, the wooden building also housed a parish school beginning in 1895. When a new, larger St. Charles Church was built on Howard Street (now South Van Ness Avenue) in 1916, the parish school expanded into the entire building and continued in operation until it closed due to low enrollment in 2017. Today, the building continues its educational mission as home to San Francisco Islamic School and LaScuola International School. In 1981, the building was designated San Francisco Landmark #139.
St. Mary’s Cathedral at Van Ness and O’Farrell, 1931. (wnp70.0829; Marilyn Blaisdell Collection / Courtesy of Molly Blaisdell)
Built in 1891 as a larger replacement for the original St. Mary’s on California Street and Grant Avenue, the red-brick cathedral served the community for 71 years until an arson fire destroyed the structure in September of 1962. A new structure of a modern design and with increased seating for 2,400 persons was built nearby at the corner of Geary and Gough, and was dedicated in May of 1971. This site at 1001 Van Ness was home to a new office building housing KRON-TV for several decades, but that structure was vacated and subsequently demolished in 2019 to make room for a new 14-story assisted-living facility that is under construction in 2021.
St. Paulus Lutheran Church at Gough and Eddy, 1940s. (wnp14.12202; Courtesy of a Private Collector)
ST. PAULUS EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH
Founded in 1867, the ornate structure at Gough & Eddy was the Church’s 3rd location for 101 years, from 1894-1995. It survived the 1906 earthquake and avoided being dynamited to limit the spread of fire when a nearby fire hydrant was found to be working, thus sparing the church. It survived a serious steeple fire in 1940 and was repaired. Disaster struck again in November of 1995 when the iconic structure succumbed to fire in a massive five-alarm blaze. The church temporarily shifted its operations to a nearby site that was formerly home to its school, and it later moved to a variety of other temporary quarters. A permanent new home was secured when a developer began construction on a multi-unit residential structure at the long-vacant 999 Eddy Street site, with a smaller-sized church space contained within the new building. Dedication of the new housing/church facility is expected in 2021.
Temple Emanu-El on Sutter between Stockton and Powell, 1890. (wnp37.03566; Marilyn Blaisdell Collection / Courtesy of a Private Collector)
The towering onion domes of San Francisco’s oldest Jewish house of worship made Temple Emanu-El a clear landmark on the City’s horizon from the time of construction in the mid-1860s. Seriously damaged in 1906, the synagogue was repaired (though minus its distinctive “lantern” towers and onion domes) by 1907 and continued to serve the congregation for another 18 years until the present temple at Arguello Boulevard and Lake Street was dedicated in 1925. The 450 Sutter Medico-Dental building opened at this location in 1929.
Trinity Methodist Church on Market at 16th Street, 1950s. (wnp25.5049; Courtesy of a Private Collector)
TRINITY METHODIST CHURCH
Replacing an older wooden structure in the era between the two World Wars, the tan brick Trinity Methodist Church at the intersection of 16th, Noe, and Market Streets once had a large following in Eureka Valley, when it was mostly a Scandinavian neighborhood. By the late 1970s with a dwindling congregation, the church opened its basement-level auditorium for use by the Eureka Theater. Sadly, the building was lost to an arson fire in 1981, and the site remained a vacant lot and later a community garden. After 32 years, a non-descript condo building was erected at this location in 2013.
Voice of Pentecost Church (former El Rey Theatre), 2002. (wnp010.10209; Richard Brandi / Courtesy of Richard Brandi)
VOICE OF PENTECOST CHURCH
The building at 1970 Ocean Avenue housed the El Rey Theater, which opened in 1931. After shutting down in 1977 the structure was then home to Voice of Pentecost Church for the next 30+ years. Financial difficulties within the church organization brought about a foreclosure sale in 2015. The building became San Francisco Landmark #274 in 2017 in an effort to preserve it. By the summer of 2019, plans called for a restoration of the theater and the commercial spaces, plus the addition of 42 condominiums, with underground parking at the site, though those plans have since been withdrawn.
Read more about the history of the building.
The Esplanade Phase I: A Closer Look
by Arnold Woods
Back at the beginning of the year, we told you about the makeover of Point Lobos Avenue that occurred in the early 1920s. This was neither the first nor the last road and construction work to go on in this area though. The oceanfront area to the south of the Cliff House was undergoing its own makeover before, during, and after the Point Lobos Avenue work.
View from Sutro Heights south at Great Highway, circa 1895. (wnp4/wnpglass01.010; Courtesy of a Private Collector)
There had long been a horse road extending from the Cliff House end of Ocean Beach down to Sloat that was known as Ocean Boulevard. This was largely a sandy road, but by the mid-1890s, they were improving it with a foundation of rough stone all the way from the Cliff House to Lake Merced.1 By this time, the road was generally being referred to as the Great Highway, though we are not sure when the name may have been officially changed.
View north of Ocean Beach and Great Highway from Fulton, November 1, 1915. (wnp4/wnp4.0623; DPW Horace Chaffee, photographer – SF Department of Public Works / Courtesy of a Private Collector)
With the increasing popularity of automobiles after the turn of the 20th century though, San Francisco was keen to create both a better road and an attractive destination along the beach. What the City wanted was a beautiful esplanade that ran the full length of Ocean Beach. Recognizing that this would be expensive and not wanting to issue bonds for the work, the Board of Supervisors unanimously approved a resolution on February 15, 1915 to do the work “one section at a time.2”
Beginning of construction on Ocean Beach seawall and esplanade, February 1, 1916. (wnp4/wnp4.0813; DPW Horace Chaffee, photographer – SF Department of Public Works / Courtesy of a Private Collector)
On May 3, 1915, the Board of Supervisors appropriated $50,000 to begin the work on the first section.3 Soon City Engineer Michael O’Shaughnessy was preparing plans for a seawall beginning at the bottom of the Sutro Heights hill with the area behind the wall to be filled in and beautified.4 After a hiccup with the original winning bidder for the work withdrawing, the contract for the initial work was awarded to J.D. Hannah on November 19, 1915.5
View north at Ocean Beach Esplanade construction, August 11, 1916. (wnp4/wnp4.0832; DPW Horace Chaffee, photographer – SF Department of Public Works / Courtesy of a Private Collector)
There was some early controversy regarding the placement of the seawall. An engineer hired by the Park-Richmond Improvement Club filed a report that the seawall was too close, 150 feet, from the high tide water mark and that it should be 300 feet.6 The City replied that if the beach was 300 feet wide, there would be insufficient room for the road next to it and they would have to buy beachfront properties to account for it. The work commenced per the City’s plans and progressed through much of 1916. The large seawall included bleacher seats at the bottom that are largely covered by sand today.
View north at esplanade and Great Highway construction work, 1916. (wnp4/wnp4.0628; Courtesy of a Private Collector)
Soon after this work began, San Franciscans began petitioning for the City to extend the esplanade even further south. On March 18, 1916, the Recreation League asked Supervisors to extend it to at least where the Beach Chalet was located.7 The Golden Gate Park Federation of Improvement Clubs took this one step further and asked Supervisors to appropriate $100,000 for extension of the esplanade.8 The Civic League seconded this request.9 Supervisors, however, only appropriated an additional $25,000.10 The contract for that work was again awarded to J.D. Hannah, though he was not the lowest bidder, because his company had proved to be a responsible contractor during the first part of the construction.11
View north at completed first portion of Ocean Beach esplanade construction, 1917. (wnp4/wnp4.0627; Courtesy of a Private Collector)
O’Shaughnessy announced the completion of the first part of the esplanade work on November 10, 1916.12 He turned over this section to Park Superintendent John McLaren for landscaping work. After McLaren finished his work, a large dedication was held on April 29, 1917.13 With World War I raging half a world away, the speeches of Mayor James “Sunny Jim” Rolph and others at the ceremony tended toward the patriotic, with Rolph urging everyone to “do our bit.”
View south at completed first portion of Ocean Beach esplanade construction, circa 1918. (wnp4/wnp4.0817; Courtesy of a Private Collector)
Mere weeks after the dedication, however, the Board’s Finance Committee eliminated further appropriations for the esplanade construction as they reduced the City budget.14 Despite calls from improvement clubs and newspapers for the esplanade work to continue, the City would not budge even when it received $392,000 from Southern Pacific as part of a land exchange.15 As we know today, the work would eventually be restarted. We will have that story soon.
1. “At The Park And The Cliff,” San Francisco Chronicle, December 16, 1895, p. 12.
2. “Supervisors Favor Beach Esplanade,” San Francisco Chronicle, February 16, 1915, p. 2.
3. “City’s Tax Rate To Be Increased,” San Francisco Chronicle, May 4, 1915, p. 4.
4. “Esplanade Plans To Be Ready Soon,” San Francisco Chronicle, June 25, 1915, p. 12.
5. “Beach Esplanade Will Soon Be Underway,” San Francisco Chronicle, November 20, 1915, p. 15.
6. “City Engineer Makes Reply To Critic of Esplanade,” San Francisco Chronicle, January 29, 1916, p. 8.
7. “Want Esplanade Extended,” San Francisco Chronicle, March 19, 1916, p. 18.
8. “Thousands Asked For Improvements,” San Francisco Chronicle, April 2, 1916, p. 40.
9. “United States Is Asked For Bridge,” San Francisco Chronicle, April 4, 1916, p. 2.
10. “$15,656,090 Budget Is Adopted by Supervisors,” San Francisco Chronicle, May 18, 1916, p. 30.
11. “Esplanade Construction Award To Be Contested,” San Francisco Chronicle, July 23, 1916, p. 8.
12. “Work On Esplanade,” San Francisco Chronicle, November 11, 1916, p. 10.
13. “Beach Esplanade Is Dedicated By Patriotic Crowd,” San Francisco Chronicle, April 30, 1917, p. 11.
14. “City’s Budget Reduced Over Half Million,” San Francisco Chronicle, May 10, 1917, p. 11.
15. “Raids Begun On $392,000 Fund By Supervisors,” San Francisco Chronicle, December 4, 1917, p. 10.
D-Day Crash: A Closer Look
by Arnold Woods
On June 6, 1944, Allied forces launched Operation Overlord by landing troops on six Normandy beaches in northwest France. It was the beginning of the end of the war in Europe that would lead to the German surrender the following May. Although D-Day is a common military term for the day when a military operation is launched, if you mention D-Day today, most people will believe it to be a reference to June 6, 1944.
Back here in San Francisco, there was the beginning of a different kind of end happening on June 6, 1944. Before we get to that day, however, let’s backtrack with a little streetcar history.
31 Balboa streetcar at end of the line at 30th Avenue and Balboa on opening day, May 15, 1932. (wnp5.50856; John Henry Mentz, photographer – United Railroads / Courtesy of Jack Tillmany)
On May 15, 1932, the Market Street Railway Company opened the 31-Balboa streetcar line. It was designed to compete with Muni’s Geary streetcar operations two blocks away and actually did a good job of it for some time. The 31-Balboa line ran from the Ferry Building down Market Street to Eddy Street. The streetcars then ran west on Eddy, then briefly south on Divisidero before heading west again on Turk Street. At the intersection with Arguello Boulevard, the tracks made a slight jog to the north to Balboa Street and continued on Balboa to 30th Avenue. It was the last new streetcar line constructed in San Francisco.
31-Balboa streetcar headed east on Turk Street near Parker, June 1949. (wnp14.1406; Courtesy of a Private Collector)
Part of the 31-Balboa route on Turk Street took it over Lone Mountain where the University of San Francisco campus sits. Between Masonic Avenue and Arguello, the 31-Balboa streetcar climbed the hill to USF and then descended down the other side. It is not the worst grade among San Francisco hills, but it is a sustained grade. At the bottom of the hill on the Arguello side, there was a Standard Oil Products station on the southwest corner which can be seen in the image above. Because of the slight jog from Turk onto Balboa, streetcars coming down the hill had to slow to 5-10 mph to safely traverse the intersection.
31-Balboa streetcar accident at Standard Oil Products station at Arguello and Balboa looking west, June 6, 1944. (wnp67.0508; Jack Tillmany Collection / Courtesy of a Private Collector)
You have probably figured out where we are headed. On June 6, 1944, streetcar #981 was headed down the hill from USF towards Arguello. Somewhere on that stretch, the operator lost control and, moving too fast, the streetcar jumped the tracks at Balboa and crashed into the Standard Oil Products station. The streetcar knocked one of the support columns in a covered service area askew. Fortunately, there apparently were no serious injuries or deaths. A crowd did gather to gawk at the errant streetcar.
31-Balboa streetcar accident at Standard Oil Products station at Arguello and Balboa looking north, June 6, 1944. (wnp5.50940; Jack Tillmany Collection / Courtesy of a Private Collector)
What caused the accident? We haven’t found a report that pinpointed the cause, but it was likely one of two reasons. It might have been operator error or it might have been faulty brakes. Either explanation was an indirect result of World War II. During the war, many experienced streetcar operators and maintenance men quit their jobs with the Market Street Railway for higher-paying jobs at the suddenly in demand shipyards. The Market Street Railway was forced to hire people with little to no experience. This resulted in poor maintenance of the streetcars with some vehicles even listing to one side. The streetcars began to look dusty and grimy as cleaning got shortchanged. And who knew if the operator had received enough training to navigate safely through the system.
31-Balboa streetcar accident at Standard Oil Products station at Arguello and Balboa looking northeast, June 6, 1944. (wnp67.0509; Jack Tillmany Collection / Courtesy of a Private Collector)
The lack of experience and maintenance created a dangerous situation and streetcar accidents became far more common during the war years. The California Public Utilities Commission (“CPUC”) even ordered the Market Street Railway to reduce their fares from seven cents to six cents because the CPUC said their service wasn’t worth the price. Perhaps as a result of the poor service, the City had voted to authorize Muni to purchase the Market Street Railway.1 Over the course of the summer of ’44, all the required approvals and payments were made and the unification of the trolley lines finally occurred on September 29, 1944.2 The end of the line for the Market Street Railway had arrived.
We gratefully acknowledge the material contributions of local Muni expert, Emiliano Echeverria, to this post.
1. “Trolley Purchase Piling Up Lead,” San Francisco Chronicle, May 17, 1944, p. 1.
2. “Trolley Lines Merge–Little Confusion,” by Don Cleary, San Francisco Chronicle, September 30, 1944, p. 1.